i March 13, 1945. M. H. LEES, JR RIVET Filed March 14, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet l Ai zum@7 March 13, 1945. M. H. LEES, JR w l2,371,452 4 RIvET v r Filed March 14, 1944 2 sheets-sheet 2 Patented Mar. 13, 1945 -UNITED STATES PATENT orf-'ICE s Milton Calif. i terial being riveted. The shank at the end remote from the head is then upset to set the rivet. Since the head engages the material of the shank at the headed end of the rivet the latter cannot move as the rivet is-being set. The shank end of the rivet, however, is free to move into the h oie and is slightly forced into the hole duringthe upsetting operation, thus the material is not evenly distributed at both ends of the rivet hole. According to my invention I provide means for holding the rivet temporarily in such manner that both ends of the rivet simultaneously move into the hole during the riveting operation. `It is, therefore, the general object of my invention to provide an improved rivet which permits even distribution of metal in the sheets being riveted. A more specific object of the inventionis to provide a rivet which includes means to prevent the trailing end of the rivet from vfully entering the rivet hole when the rivet is rst inserted, thus permitting further movement of the rivet into the hole during the riveting operation, the result being that metal is evenly distributed andthe rivet is more firmly secured in place. A more specic object ofthe invention is to provide a rivet includingmeans on the head end thereof for preventing the rivet from moving fully into a hole until the riveting operation begins. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rivet having a mushroom type head with the edge of the head undercut so that it will temporarily limit the movement of the shank into Another object of the invention is toeprovide a rivet including a head having deformable protuberances thereon which'limit the movement of the shank into the hole when the rivet is first inserted in place. A further object of my invention is. to provide 1 claim. wiss- 4er Fig. 3 is a side elevation, partly in section, showing the mandrel Fig. 4 is a sectional view showing the rivet inserted and about to be set; Fig. 5 shows the rivet in set position prior to the removal of the shank; Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fis. 1; Fig. 7 is a side elevation, partly in section. showing a modified rivet; Fig. 8shows the modified rivet after preliminary insertion: l Fig. 9 shows the modified rivet vafter it is set: Fig. 10 is a view similar to Fig. 1; Fig. 11 is a side elevation, partly in section, showing a further modified rivet; Fig. `12 shows a further modified rivet after in itial insertion, and l Fig. 13 shows the further condition. y Referringto the drawings' by reference characters, I have shown my invention as embodied in a rivet which is indicated generally at iii. As modified 'rivet in set shown the rivet is oi' the mandrel extrusion typev and is employed in securing layers of material of relatively soft metal and are provided with aligned apertures i3 which are of a diameter to receive the shank il of the rivet. 'I'he rivet shown is hollow, having a bore lirand is pros0 vided with a mushroom head i6 with a bevelled 35 the shape of a truncated cone with `the apex directed upwardly and intersecting the shank at 20 while thelower or outer end of the truncated portion forms a sharp edge 2i where it meets the rounded upper surface iilof the rivet. 4o The mandrel member il includes a shank 22 having a head lsthereon. The head is shown as rounded as at 3i and has an undercut groove 25 3 whereby a deformable rim portion 26 is provided. The shank is tapered as at 21 adjacent the head with the diameter decreasing towards the free` end of the shank A Adjacent to the end of the# tapered portion a shank is provided with e peripheral groove 2l and spaced from the first groove Il the shank has a second .peripheral 60 groove. In operation the shank member is inserted inl the bore i! of the rivet and the latter is arrangedintheapertures i3 ofthematerialtobe e united. A pull member Il having pivoted laws 82 thereoniathenarrangedaothatit'aheadll such as I2 together. vThese layers are preferably engages the head I6 of the rivet. The pull member is operated (by meansnot shown) thus causing the head 33 of the pull member to push downwardly on the head I6 of the Yrivet while the Jaws 32 pull the mandrel member upwardly so that the parts assume the position shown in Fig. 5. The pushing of the head I6 downwardly causes the tubular portion of the rivet adjacent to the head to be forced inwardly into the aperture I3 and fills the groove 29 while the head shifts from the position of Fig. 4 to the position of Fig. 5. At the same time the tapered portion 2l of the mandrel enters the lower end of the rivet and forces this lower end outwardly into the groove 25 and also forces the surplus metal in to the groove 28. The lower end of the rivet shank is expanded as shown in Fig. 5. Simultaneously the deformable rim 2G engaging the end of the rivet is forced outwardly to the position shown in Fig. 5 so that it covers the end of the socket member as shown. After the rivet is secured in position as shown in Fig. 5 the pull member 3I is removed and the mandrel shank is cut off. In the modification shown in Figs. 6 to 9, inclusive, the layers I2 are provided with aligned apertures I3 into which the shank 35 of a rivet 36 is inserted. The rivet 36 has a rounded head 31 which has a planar lower face 38. The head 31 at the periphery lis provided with a plurality of downwardly punched tongues 39 which extend below the face 38 as shown in Figs. 7 and 8. Slots 40 are formed when the tongues 39 are punched. In'operation the rivet is inserted as shown in I be accomplished while the inner and outer end portions of the shank are forced slightly into the aligned-holes so that the resultant distribution of metal provides a very secure setting for the rivet. In Figs. 10 to 13, inclusive, I show layers I2" which are provided with aligned apertures I3" to receive the shank 50 of a rivet 5I which has a rounded head 52. The lower surface 53 of the rivet 5I is in the shape of a truncated cone similar to the surface I9 shown in Fig. 2 and described above. The rivet 5I is insertedy in the holes I3" as shown in Fig. 12 and the head takes the position there shown. During the riveting operation the head is moved downwardly causing the portion of the shank adjacent to the head to move inwardly thus causing it to assume a tapered conguration as indicated at 54. In setting the rivet the portion of the shank remote from the head 52 moves inwardly inthe hole and forms a tapered portion 55 as the end of the rivet is upset as at 56. From the foregoing description it will be apparent that I have invented a novel rivet and a method of riveting which are simple and highly eilicent for the intended purpose. Having thus described my invention, I claim: A rivet including a head and a shank, said shank being cylindrical, said head having a rounded upper surface, the entire lower surface of said head being frusto-conical with the apex of the cone frustum directed upwardly and directly intersecting the shank at an acute angle and with the bottom of the cone frustum intersecting the rounded head so that a depending Aoverhanging edge portion is provided on the rivet head, the edge portion serving to limit the movement of the head towards the material when the rivet shank is inserted in a hole, the construction permitting the end portion of the shank which is adjacent to the head to be forced outwardly and expanded into the hole as the rivet is secured in place. MILTON H. LEES, JR.



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