Jan. 6,-1953 A. F. KIRKPATRlcK ETAL POLARIZING ATTACHMENT FOR MICROSCQPES 2 sums- SHEET 1 Filed Feb. 5, 1949 Jan. 6, 1953 A. F. KxRKPATRlcK ETAL 2,624,235
V PGLARIZING ATTACHMENT FOR MICROSCOPES 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 Filed Feb. 5, 1949 ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 6, 1953 POLARIZING ATTACHMENT FOR MICROSCOPES Alan Fred Kirkpatrick, Stamford, and Charles Rule Stryker, Greenwich, Conn., assignors to American Cyanamid Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Maine Application February 5, 1949, Serial No. 74,744
This invention relates to a device for attachyment to microscopes to provide observation with polarized light for the examination of birefringent materials. More particularly, the invention relates to a` device applicable to low power binocular microscopes of the Greenough type.
Polarized light has been used extensively in the past for the microscopical observation of bire y frngence as a manifestation of internal structure. In the ordinary monocular microscope, the provision for equipment to make observations with polarized light is a comparatively simple matter. The polarizer is provided between the source Yof light and the sample, and an analyzer is incorporated into the barrel of the microscope, or, as an analyzing cap. When such a micro- Scope is provided with a rotatory stagathe advantages of observation with polarized light are fully realized.
The application of polarized light to binocular microscope of the Greenough type, however, has presented a serious problem. It is not feasible to use simple cap analyzers and it is essential to employ microscope optical systems which are entirely strain-free, otherwise, the strain in the elements of the optical systems themselves, will appear in color and will therefore result in masking the colored images obtained of the internal phenomena of the material being observed. Unfortunately, it is not practical to construct binocular stereoscopic microscopes with optical systems that are entirely strain-free. Therefore, this type of microscope has not been considered suitable for many observations with polarized light. This has reduced its field of utility to a material extent.
The present invention provides for fully adjustable polarizer and analyzer located ahead of the objective of the microscope. It is thus not necessary that the optical system of the microscope be strain-free, because no 4analyzing element is between the microscope optical system and the observers eye. A further advantage of the present invention is that it provides most of the advantages of a rotatable-stage microscope and thus performsva dual function.
Essentially, the present invention includes a framework capable of sliding over the ordinary stage of the microscope and carrying pillars on which a second framework is movable vertically. Rotatable polarizing elements are mounted in these two frameworks on geared mounts engaging with gears on a shaft permitting manual rotation of the two polarizing elements. One of them is also provided'with a friction mount,
2 which permits individual rotation, so that the angular relation of the two elements may be altered and then the two turned as a whole without affecting the angle between them. All the Y advantages of polarized light microscopy are thus obtained, together with many of the functions of a rotatable stage, but Without the complication and added expense of the latter.
The upper polarizing element may be moved vertically, permitting use with Various objectives of different working distance.
While the greatest advantages of the present invention are obtained when it is used lwith a binocular microscope of the `Greenough type, whichsconstitutes the preferred use, it should bc understood that the device can also be used with other types of microscopes, such as monocular microscopes, although there the advantage is not as great because it is possible to obtain comparable results in these microscopes with suitable optical systems.
The device of the present invention is generally applicable to all microscopes having a sufciently large working distance to accommodate the two polarizing elements. It is, of course, not suitable for very high powered microscopes, where the working distance is too small to permit the'mounting of the polarizers. For many uses, extremely high power is not necessary, and the :present invention adapts binocular microscopes with their'advantages of great depth of field and stereoscopic affects for the observation with pclarized light, and for the distinction between birefringent and non-birefringent material. For the first time it is possible to adapt this type of microscope simply and cheaply and thus the gap gap between the macroscopical examination of crystals and the relatively high powered examination with a petrographic microscope is bridged.
y The device of the present invention has the additional advantage that it can be readily removed or inserted, so that it is not necessary to set aside certain microscopes for polarized light investigation; On the contrary, a single microscope can be .quickly adapted for use with either ordinary illummation or with polarized light.
` The invention will be described in greater detail in conjunction with the drawings in which: Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a binocular microscope showing the polarizer of the present invention in position;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged side elevation of the device of Fig. 1
Fig. 3 is a top plan View of the device shown in Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged detail of the lower frame carrying one of the polarizing elements;
Figure 5 is a perspective view of the device shown in Figure 2.
The device of the present invention is illustrated in conjunction with the binocular microscope of the Greenough type, for which it is particularly useful. In Fig. 1, the microscope framework is shown at I, with a stationary stage 2, and conventional illuminating mirror 3. The top of stage 2 is provided with a glass plate 2 I. -as shown in Figure 4. The microscope itself is provided with an objective 4, the usual binocular body 5, and two oculars 6. The polarizing device includes a bottom framework 'I channeled to slide into complementary channels on the stationary `4 ordinary illumination to polarized light illumination, and vice versa, it is not necessary to change the adjustment of the microscope because there is no part projecting above the top polarizing element, except the pillars and adjusting shaft, which are in front of the microscope. Likewise, when it is desired to change objectives while the polarizing adapter is in position, it can be simply stage, as illustrated in Figures 1 and 4. Frame 'I is provided with rotatable ring-gear II, which meshes with gear I2 mounted on shaft I6, secured to frame 'I. A polarizing element 9, mounted in rotatable mount 22, is disposed within ringgear I I.
A pair of vertical supports 2E) secured to frame 'I at the forward end thereof carry upper frame 8. Frame B is slidable vertically on supports by means of sleeves I8, and may be locked in position thereon by means of clamping screws I9. Frame 8 is provided with rotatable ring-gear I3, which meshes with gear I4, which is also mounted on shaft I6. Gear I4 is keyed on shaft I6. A polarizing plate I6, mounted in rotatable mount I5, is disposed within ring-gear I3. Supports 20 are provided at the upper end thereof with crossbar 23, which serves to provide the necessary rigidity to the device. Manual rotation of shaft I 6 is accomplished -by knurled knob I'I, located at the top of the shaft. As will be obvious, since gears I2 and I4 are mounted on the shaft, rotation of the shaft drives gears I2 and I4, which in turn drive ring-gears II and I3, respectively, and thus cause rotation in unison of polarizing plates 9 and IU, carried in mounts 22 and I5, disposed within ring-gears II and I3;
In operation, the upper framework 8 is slid on the columns 2) to a level permitting a satisfactory working distance for the microscope objective and is clamped in this position. The upper polarizing element I6 is then rotated manually by the knurled mount I5 until itis adjusted to the desired angle with respect to the lower polaricing element 6. Then the two elements can be moved together by rotation of the shaft I6, which turns the ring-gears II and I3 by means of the gears I2 and ifi, Not only is it possible therefore to have the desired adjustment of the polarizing element, but both can be rotated to give the effect otherwise obtainable only with a rotating stage.
A preferred modification of the device of the present invention is shown, in which the twoy polarizing elements mounts are driven through gears. This is a very simple and rugged construction and is preferred. Of course, any other drive which will maintain the angular relationships of the polarizing elements may be used instead and the particular modification shown in the drawing is meant to be illustrative only of a desirable and preferred type of drive.
When observations are to be made, both with polarized light and with ordinary illumination, the polarizing adapter of the present invention may be simply slid on to and oir the microscope stage, without affecting any of the other adjustments, except for refocussing. It is thus possible to shift rapidly from one type of illumination to the other. When changing the microscope for effected, as there is no projecting part which prevents removing the objective sideways.
A further advantage of the present invention lies in the fact that many of the functions of a rotating stage are obtained without, however, requiring any costly construction, for the adapter is much cheaper to build than the ordinary rotating stage, and yet for polarized light observation, full 360 degree rotation of the polarizer is possible, so that crystalline material can be observed at all angles of orientation.
l. A polarizing attachment for a microscope comprising a frame, rotatable mounting means in said frame, a polarizing element supported in said rotatable mounting means, a vertical shaft journalled on said frame, means on said shaft for causing rotation of said mounting means and said polarizing element, a pair of vertical supports secured to said frame and spaced laterally from said shaft, a second frame mounted on said supports and being vertically movable with respect to said first-mentioned frame, said shaft being journalled in said second frame a second rotatable mounting means in said second-mentioned frame, a second polarizing element supported in said second-mentioned rotatable mounting means, means on said shaft engaging with said second-mentioned mounting means and causing rotation of said second-mentionedV mounting means and said second-mentioned polarizing element, whereby the rotation of said shaft rotates the said polarizing elements in unison, and means on said first-mentioned frame for detachably securing said frame to the stage of a microscope, said frame when in position on the stage of a microscope being so positioned that one of said polarizing elements is above said stage and the other of said polarizing elements is below said stage.
2. A polarizing attachment for a microscope comprising a frame, a vertical shaft journalled on said frame, a drive gear fixed to said shaft, a driven gear meshing therewith, a rim-mounted polarizing element positioned Within said driven gear and supported on said frame, a pair of vertical supports secured to said frame and spaced 'laterally from said shaft, a second frame mounted on said supports and being verticallymovable with respect to said Erst-mentioned frame, said shaft being journalled on said second-mentioned frame, a second drive gear fixed to said shaft, a second driven gear meshing with said secondmentioned drive gear, a second polarizing element in a rotatable rim mount positioned within said second-mentioned driven gear and supported on said second frame and being mounted for rotation relative to said first-mentioned polarizing element, means for rotating said shaft whereby said polarizing elements are rotated in unison, and channel members on said first-mentioned frame for detachably securing said frame to 'complementary channels on the stage of a microscope, said frame when in position on the stage of a microscope being so positioned that one of'said polarizing elements is above said stage 'and the REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
Number UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date West Mar. 28, 1939 Banker May 7, 194.6 Bennett Feb. 17, 1948 Woodruff Jan. 10, 1950