Turbine type hydraulic torque converter

Abstract

Claims

W. H. FENGLER TURBINE TYPE HYDRAULIC TORQUE CONVERTER Feb. 3, 1953 '7 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Feb. 9. 1949 Feb. 3, 1953 w. H. FENAGLER TURBINE TYPE HYDRAULIG TURQUE CONVERTER4 7 Sheets-sheet 2 Filed Feb. 9. 1949 a/eywf/ir (hmmag 5 Feb 3, 1953 w. H. FENGLER TURBINE TYPE HYDRAULIC TORQUE CONVERTER 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Feb. 9, 1949 dnornegs Feb. 3, 1953 w. H. FENGLER TURBINE TYPE HYDRAULIC TORQUE CONVERTER 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Feb. 9. 1949 W. H. FENGLER TURBINE TYPE HYDRAULIC TORQUE CONVERTER Feb. 3, 1953 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Feb. 9. 1949 Gtornegs Feb. 3, 1953 w. H., FENGLER 2,627,165 TURBINE TYPE HYDRAULICV TORQUE CONVERTER Filed Feb. 9, 1949 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 Bnventor Zeyer/'g/er Patented Feb. 3, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE TURBINE TYPE HYDRAULIC TORQUE CONVERTER Werner H. Fengler, Dearborn, Mich. ApplicationFebruary 9, 1949, Serial No. 75,480 11 Claims. 1. This` invention relates to. power-transmitting devices and, in particular, to turbine type hydraulic torque converters. One object of this invention is to provide a hydraulic torque converter wherein the liquid in the converter travels along one or more toroidal pathways between the impeller or` driving wheel and the runner or driven wheel, the liquid flowing smoothly and rapidly along a gradually curving pathway without abrupt changes and with a minimum of vortex action. and friction. Another object is to provide a hydraulic torque converter wherein the power transmitting liquid flows in one or. more toroidal paths which are tilted at skew angles to the axis of rotation of theimpeller and runner, these toroidal paths being' almost entirely separate from one another and substantially independent ofV one another so as to be substantially free from interference with one another during the operation of the torque converter. Another object is to provide a hydraulic torque converter wherein the liquid entering and leaving the impeller and runner is guided in one or more toroidal paths by guide channels or nozzles in a guide structure interposed between the impeller and runner so as to insure the smooth flow of the liquid with a minimum of vortex action or interference between diiiferent toroidal paths of liquid, the rapidly flowing toroidal bodies of liquid exerting a flywheel action as they rotate around the axis of rotation. Another object is to provide a hydraulic torque converter of the foregoing character, wherein the impeller and runner are of different diarneters so as to give a power and speed ratio between them, the runner being preferably of larger diameter than the impeller in order to eiect a speed reduction between them and thus eliminate the necessity for additional reduction gearing which might otherwise be' required. Another object is to provide a hydraulic torque converter of the foregoing character wherein the impeller and runner are provided with vanes or blades formed in such a manner that the con partments or recesses between the blades always enclose a complete portion of the toroidal pathway of the liquid, the blades and the guide chan:- nels or nozzles in the guide structure being so arranged that each blade or vane will not uncover the exit opening until the next blade is in a position to talie the full` thrust. Another object is to provide a hydraulic torque converter of the` foregoing character wherein the toroidal bodies of liquid are slightly constricted or throttled at certain portions of their paths so as to impart anozzle action and increased speed to the liquid, as well as to impart an increased proportion of torque to the output shaft of the converter--a desirable condition to achieve where the converter is to be used for vehicle driving purposes. Another object is to provide a hydraulic torque converter wherein the fluid travels in a plurality of substantially independent toroidal paths between the impeller and runner, and is returned from the runner to the vanes or blades ofthe impeller at an angle rather than to the axial region of the impeller, as in prior types of converters, the impeller vanes cutting` through the toroidal bodies of flowing liquid at an angle so as to accelerate the liquid without changing its direction of flow. In the drawings: Y Figure l is a vertical longitudinal section through a hydraulic torque converter according to a preferred form ofthe present invention, with the parts in their neutral positions; Figure 2 is a central vertical section through the impeller casing portion.,l taken along the line 2'-2,n Figure 3. Figure 3. is a rear elevation` of the impeller portion of the torque converter casing, looking toward the forward end of the converter; Figure 4 is a front elevation. of the guide ring or nozzle structure shown in Figures 6 andA 5, looking toward the rearward end of the converter; Figure 5 is a left-hand side elevation, partly in central vertical section, of the guide ring or nozzle structure shown` in Figure 2, taken along lthe line 5-5 in Figures 6 and 4; Figure 6 is a rear elevation of the guide ring or nozzle structure employed in the torque converter of Figure 1, looking toward the forward end thereof; Figure 7 isA a left-hand side elevation of the runner or driven wheel shown in Figure 8; partly in section along the line l-- therein; Figure 8 is a front elevation of the runner or driven wheel looking toward the rearward end of the converter;v Figure 9 is a fragmentary front elevation of the driven wheel or runner of Figure 8 showing a portion of the vane or bucket'structurelooking in the direction indica-ted by the arrow 9 9 in Figure 7; Figure 10` is a diagrammatic rear elevation, looking toward the forward end of the converter, of the three toroidal bodies of flowingl liquidl re- Figure 13 is a top plan View of the impeller Y shown in Figure 12; Figure 14 is a central vertical section through the impeller taken along the line Ic-I in Figure 12; Figure 15 is an exploded front elevation of the segment portions of the guide ring or nozzle structure, showing one of the filler blocks withdrawn from its position to permit disassembly of the structure and consequent removal of the runner or driven wheel; Figure 16 is a fragmentary side elevation of a v portion of the construction shown in Figure 15, with a filler block in position; Figure 17 is a diagrammatic view showing the principle of operation of the converter with the impeller and runner shown in developed or rectilinear form forconvenience of demonstration; and Figure 18 is a cross-section along the line ,IS-I8 in Figure 1, showing the reverse gearing by which the torque converter is made to drive the output shaft in a reverse direction, such ma for backward travel of a vehicle. General arrangement The hydraulic torque converter as hitherto known has been frequently employed for bringing a vehicle or other machine from a standstill up to a desired running speed. Such prior torque converters have generally been of the so-called Fttinger type wherein the runner and impeller roughly resemble the halves of a grapefruit facing one another, usually with a guide wheel between them. The liquid in such a torque converter generally pursues a complicated spiral spiral spring which has been bent into a ring vwith its oppositeV ends in contact. In such prior torque converters, the liquid, during operation, is required to make many abrupt changes of direction with a consequently high amount of friction accompanied by the generation of considerable heat. This heat not only causes a serious loss of power and efficiency, but also results in the necessity for providing additional cooling arrangements for dissipating this heat. The complicated annular spiral path followed by the liquid in prior torque converters also results in Vthe development of a great amount of vortex action with a further loss of efciency and power and an additional generation of heat. In such prior torque converters, the liquid is thrown outward from the peripheral portion of the impeller or driving wheel into the peripheral portion of the runner or driven wheel whence it is returned by the vanes or blades thereof to the axial portion of the blades or vanes of the impeller or driving wheel. The driving wheel always functions on the principle of a centrifugal pump. In the torque converter of the present invention, however, unlike prior torque converters, the driving wheel functions on the principle of a Vpath in an annular direction, much resembling a ships screw propeller, pushing the liquid rearward and causing the liquid to ow in one or more toroidal paths encircling the axis of rotation and arranged at skew angles or planes thereto. These toroidal bodies of liquid are shaped much like a doughnut or the inner tube of a tire, and are intersected by the blades or vanes of the impeller or driving wheel at one side and by the blades or vanes of the runner or driven wheel on the other side, a guide ring or nozzle structure being arranged between them so as to cause the liquid to gradually change its direction and preserve its toroidal direction of ow in passing from the impeller to the runner and from the runner back to the impeller. By thus avoiding abrupt changes of direction, in the flow of the liquid, vortex action is greatly reduced and friction and heat kept at a minimum. In the present torque converter also, the impeller and runner may be made of different diameters so as to give a speed change between them so that a larger runner will effect a speed reduction and an increased torque over that imparted by the impeller. General construction Referring to the drawings in detail, Figure 1 shows, in central vertical section, a hydraulic torque converter, generally designated |43, according to a preferred form of the invention, as consisting generally of certain sub-assemblies of units such as input and output clutches II and I2y respectively, a casing I3 divided into an impeller casing portion I4, a reactor in the form of a guide ring or nozzle structure casing portion I5 and a runner casing portion I6, These casing portions contain a primary rotor termed an impeller or driving wheel I'I and a secondary rotor termed a runner or driven wheel I8. Power is transmitted to the power input clutch II from the engine shaft I9 connected to any suitable type of prime mover, such as a gasoline or diesel engine or turbine. The rearward end of the engine shaft I9 is rotatably supported in an anti-friction bearing 20, the outer race of which is mounted in an annular bore 2| in the forward casing extension 22. The shaft I9 is provided with an enlarged portion 23 which is splined as at 24 to slidably receive a toothed annular clutch member 25. The enlarged shaft portion 23 is also provided with an axial bore 26 in which the reduced diameter forward end portion 21 of the torque converter main shaft 28 is rotatably mounted. For simplicity of illustration, and to avoid unnecessary complexity, the shaft portion 21 is shown as supported in a plain bearing. In actual practice, however, anti-friction bearings, such as needle bearings, would preferably be employed. This same bearing situation is also present in other parts of the torque converter IE), such as in the mounting of the runner IB upon the shaft 28. The internal teeth 29 of the input clutch member 25 are shown in their neutral position in Figure 1, but are slidable to the left into engagement with a gear-like toothed clutch member 3l) and a toothed synchronizing ring 3l mounted on the shaft 28, or to the right into mesh with a gearlike clutch member 32 and toothed synchronizing ring 33 mounted upon the hub 34 of the impeller or driving wheel I'I (Figures 1 and 14). The clutch member 25 is provided with an annular external groove 29a which is adapted to be engaged by a conventional clutch-shifting yoke (not shown) of the usual approximately Y- shaped form connected to a conventional shaft and control mechanismv such: as. alever` for shift;- ing/the clutch member I Ii toand fro. Snchwclutch yoliesy and controll mechanisms are4 well-known and. their details form noy part of the present invention; The toothed clutch members 3D and 32y and their synchronizing rings 3I and 33. are. mounted upon tapered portionsof the main shaft 28 and impeller hub 34 respectively. The hub 3'4 of the impeller II is provided with an axial bore 35 through which the shaft 28 passes, anti-friction bearings (not shown) being preferably provided therebetween. The guide ring orv nozzle structure'. I5 isrlikewise provided at its central portion with` aboref forl the' passage of the shaft 28 (Figure lflf whichis likewisepreferably provided with anti-friction bearings, such as needle' bear"- ings. Thefrunnerror driven wheelAV I8 is provided withla hub 3-fI which isbored as at 3,8. to receive a: sleeve 39% tolwhich it is dyivingly` connected as by.` aspline 4U; They sleeve 3911s alsopreferably mountedv in auth-friction' bearings on the main shaftlf, the sleeve 39 containing a bore 4I for theA passage of the` shaft Z8.. The sleeve 39A is provided with an anti-friction thrust bearing-` 42, the outer race of which is mounted inv a bore 43 in theA runner casing portion I6. An annular cavity 141` is also provided in the runner casing portion` I5 for a spring-pressed annular sealing member 45 designed to prevent leakage of oil or other liquid from the casing portion |16. A similar annular sealing member 46 is shown in Figure 1 as encircling the impeller hub 34 to prevent leakage of liquid from the forward end of the casing. The specificvv construction of the impeller. and.` runner 4casing portions I4 and I6, guideV wheel I5 and impeller and runner Il and I8`l is. described subsequently below. Reverse gearing` construction The. sleevev 39 near its rearward end is provided. with a, pinion' 4.1 (Figure 1) either integral withA the. sleeve 3B as shown or drivingly secured thereto. Beyondr the pinion 4L the rearward end" of the'sleeveV 319 is provided withl a gear-like toothed, clutch member 48 and adjacent it is a toothed synchronizing ring 49 similarV to the synchronizing rings SI and 32 and similarly mounted on a tapered portion of the sleeve 39; The members dil and 49 areselectively engageable with ashiftable clutch member 50 forming a part of the output clutch I2 and provided with an internal gear portion or toothed portion 5I adapted to mesh with the'toothed clutch member 481 and synchronizing` ring 49 when the clutch member 50 isslid to theA left. The clutch member llyincludes a rotatable collar 52 containing the internal toothed portion 5I (Figure 1). and also is internally recessedV asat 53 to receive'the rollers 54 of a conventional free-wheeling or overrunning clutch 55- which permits drivng engagement between the collar 52 and the main shaft 28 in one direction of rotation only, and disengages when driven, in the` opposite direction or when one portion of the clutch I2 overruns the other. Such overrunning clutches 55 are` conventional and their details form no part of the present invention. The overrunning clutch rollers 54' rotate around the outside of the hub or sliding sleeve 56 of an external gear portion 57 forming the inner member of the overrunning clutch 55. Beyond the gear 51, the sleeve '5E is provided with an annular groove 58 adapted toy receive a conventional clutch shifting. yoke'v (not. shown)` of approximately Y'shaped formi and ccnnemted` to any suitable shaft: and lever-for" control purposes. Such` shifting yokes are. also conventional and well-known` and` their details` likewise form no part of the: present l invention. The hub orV sliding sleeve; 55 issplinedf as at 58 (Figure 18) to. drivingly' and` slidably engage the correspondingly splined portion 60 on the mainl shaft28; Beyond the` splined portion 60, the shaft 28is journaledl in an anti-friction bearing 6I, the outer race of which is mounted in a bore 62 in the, end wall 63 of the runner casing extension 64 (Figure 1). The latter projects outward and. rearward from` the runner casing portion. I6, and the former andthe latter are providedV with aligned bores 65 and. 65 respectively-in.. which av shaft 67 is mounted. Rotatably mounted on the shaft 61 is the hub Gil of a double gear Bvluhaving a gear: 'I0 on its forward end meshing with the; pinion 411. The double geary GQ. also has a pinion "Il on its rearward. end either integral therewith as: shownor drivingly'secured thereto. The pinion 'I-i meshes with an idler gear 'I2 mounted on a. jack shaft or stud is which, in turn, is seated in a bore 'I4 in the casing extension end wall 53 (Figures 1 and 18). The idler gear12, in turn, meshes with the gear portion 5T of the shiftable clutch member 5t when the latter is slid in a rearward direction. The rearward end" of the main shaft `28` :is providedwith a; suitable splined portion 'I5 by which it is connected to a conventional universal joint or other coupling connection to the propeller shaft of thevehicle. If a universal joint is used, it is housed in asuitable casing, one of the halves of` which is shown at 'I6 (Figure 1). Casing and, rotor construction As'l previously stated, the casing i3 is divided into three main portions,I namely an impeller casing portion I4, a. guide wheelor nozzle structure Ii5, and a runner casing portion Iit'he former and the latter containing an impeller or driving wheel i1 and a runner or driven wheel I8; The casing portions Ill', I5 and I5 are providedwith matingabutting flanges Ti and 18, also TS and (Figure 1) which; are drilled to receive bolts byv which they are bolted together. The casing-portion Mis centrally provided with a circular dished recess di having a toroidal peripheral portion partly made upof the opposed circular dished recess -32 in the nozzle structure casing portion I5V (Figure l). The two recesses 8i' and` d2v unite and co-operate to form the impeller chamber 83 in which` the impeller II is rotatably mounted. having an axial bore 84 whichreceives the hub 3B ofthe impellerl Iii. The locationv atV which the bore- 84 opens into theimpeller chamber 83` is occupied by an annular groove 551111 which` the previously described annular sealing member 46 is mounted. The impeller I has a frusto-conical` extension 86 (Figures 1 and' 14)V having spirally directed grooves Si. in which spirally direetedvanes or blades 88 are securely mounted, as by welding. Thevanes 38 have arcuate outer ends 89 closely approaching the correspondingly-shapedV toroidal peripheral surface of the impeller chamber -8-3. The impeller` II thus has obliquely-directedblades orl venes` 88 and consequently the motive fluid, such as oil, must be directed into and out of the spaces" Si! between the blades 88- in an oblique direction. In order todo this, the casing I5 is provided .witha plurality of` approximately toroidal fluid V93 is designated 91a (Figures 3 and 4). passageways, three being shown andl generally designated 9I, 92 and 93 (Figures 1, 5 and 6). The fluid passageways 9|, 92 and 93, however, lie partly in each of the casing portions I4 and I5. They roughly possess the shape of an inated automobile inner tube, the principal plane of which is tilted at an oblique angle to the drive shaft 2S of the impeller I'i. By principal plane is meant the plane containing the maximum diameters of the inner peripheral surface of the passageway 9|, 92 or 93, such as, for example, the principal plane 94 indicated by the oblique chain line in Figure 1. The shapes of the approximately toroidal or ring-like bodies of liquid occupying the chambers 9|, 92 and 93 are shown at 95, 96 and 91 respectively in Figures and 11. Thus, the liquid bodies, assumed for the purposes of simplification to have been removed from the casing I3 and instantaneously frozen in the positions they occupied in the chambers 9I, 92 and 99 resemble three intertwined rings. Due to the limitations of two dimensional drawings, it is difiicult to show these three dimensional intertwined rings 95, 99 and 91 exceptby a three-dimensional model. For the same reasons and due to the fact that the chambers 9|, 92 and 93 are tilted relatively to the axis of the shaft 28, it is likewise difcult to show them in a two-dimensional drawing. Consequently, the drawings have been arranged to show the various casing portions in Figures 2 to 7 inclusive, with the parts of the chambers 9I, 92 and 93 occupying each casing portion I4 and I5 and the various portions of each chamber 9I, 92 or 93 designated by the reference numerals -9Ia, 9Ib, 9Ic, etc. Thus, for example, the chamber 9I has its upper cavity portion 9Ic (Figures 1 and 2) in the casing portion I4 and its upper cavity portion SIb in the casing portion I5. The cavity portion 9m at its junction with the cavity portion 9Ib has an outline aperture 9Ic (Figure 3), the cavity portion 9Ib `having an outline aperture 9Id. The passageway 9| in Figure 1 passes downward and forward in front of the shaft 28 and enters the blades of the impeller II from the front casing portion I4 through an aperture 9Ilc (Figure 3) and after passing through the impeller Il itself Vemerges through the aperture 9If (Figures 5 and v6) into a chamber portion 9Ic which is wholly within the middle casing portion I5. The passageway 9| continues in its ring-shaped path (Figure 1) upward behind the shaft 28, emerging through the aperture 9Ig (Figure 6) which is on the right-hand or rearward surface of the nozzle structure or middle casing portion I5. At the aperture 9Ig, the body of fluid intersects the buckets on the runner or driven wheel I8 as explained below. After leaving the buckets of the runner I8, the body of fluid 95 and the passageway 9I continues upward and passes through the aperture 9Ih (Figure 6) in the same surface of the middle casing portion I5 and passes back to the cavity SIb and apertures 9Id and 9Ic in the cavity 9 la, completing the circuit. Figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 show in elliptical dotted lines the direction of flow of the motive fluid, such as oil, substantially at the center of the rotating liquid body 95, 95 or 91, as the case may be. The ellipse for the liquid body 95 in the chamber 9| is designated 95a. Similarly, the center line of the body of fluid 99 traversing the chamber 92 is designated 95a, and the centerline of the body of fluid 9'! traversing the chamber In Figures 2 and 5, only the elliptical centerline 96a for the body of liquid 96 traversing the chamber 92 is shown. From a comparison of Figures 2, 3 and 4 is will be seen that the various ellipses a, 99a and 91a can be lined up by means of a ruler so that they project across from one figure to the other so that the diiferent ellipses can be co-related in the different views. These ellipses are oval, of course, only because their planes are tilted or make compound angles with the axis of the shaft 28; otherwise, in actuality, they are circular. The chamber 92 is also approximately toroidal and is of similar configuration and has a similar course, except that it traverses a path which is rotated degrees from the path of the chamber 9|. The cavity 92a corresponds to the cavity 9Ic in the left-hand impeller casing portion I4, and mates with a corresponding cavity 92h in the middle casing portion I5, these cavities meeting at the outline apertures 92e and 92d respectively (Figures 3 and 6). The passageway 92 passes through the front casing portion I4 and enters the blades of the impeller I1 through an aperture 927C (Figure 3) and, after passing through the impeller Il itself, it leaves through the aperture 92j (Figures 1, 5 and 6)l in a portion 92e which is wholly within the middle casing portion I5. The passageway 92 continues in its ring-shaped path within the middle casing portion I5 and emerges through an aperture 92g whence it intersects the buckets of the runner I8. The passageway 92 then re-enters the middle casing portion I5 through the aperture 92h, emerges through the aperture 92d and re-enters the forward casing portion I4 through the aperture 92o. It then passes behind the impeller I1 and reenters the impeller chamber 83, completing the circuit. The toroidal fluid chamber 93 which carries the liquid body 91 also traverses a path which is rotated 120 degrees from the paths of the chambers 9| and 92. The cavity 93a (Figures 1 and 2) is located in the left-hand impeller casing portion i4. At this location, the chamber 93 enters the impeller chamber 83 through an aperture 93k (Figure 3) and the liquid passes through the spaces 99 ybetween the vanes or blades 88. From the impeller chamber 83 in the forward casing portion I4, the passageway 93 passes upward behind the shaft 28 and enters the middle casing portion I5 through the aperture 93) (Figure 4). The passageway 93 continues upward within the casing portion I 5 and emerges through the aperture 93g, whence it intersects the buckets on the runner or driven wheel I8. After leaving the buckets of the runner I8, the passageway 93 reenters the middle casing portion I5 through the aperture 93h and emerges on the opposite side through the aperture 93d and enters the forward casing portion I4 through the aperture 93e. It thence re-enters the forward casing portion I4 behind the impeller I l, and re-enters the impeller chamber 83, completing the circuit. Thus, it will be seen that the casing portions I4 and I5 provide passageways which cooperate with the impeller chamber 83, the impeller I'I and the runner I3 to provide a complete circuit for each of the toroidal bodies of rotating uid 95, 96 and 91 traversing the toroidal passageways or chambers 9|, 92 and 93. These passageways pass by one another substantially without interference, except at the locations where they emerge to engage the runner buckets. At these locations designated 95h, 96band 91h (Figure 10). the body of liquid .is r.constricted, .this .reduction in .cross-sectional `area resultingin a nozzle effect. The constricted portion 927', .for example, is shown at the bottom of Figures 1 and 6. The constricted portion 92g' is indicated at the bottom of Figure 10by double lead lines extending from the reference numeral 95h .to opposite `sides of the constricted portion. It is at :this portion that the impeller buckets or blades cut into the body of 'liquid 96. Similarly, the chambers 9| and'93 have constricted portions 91,9' and '937' respectively (Figure 6) at the locations lwlfiere they intersect the buckets of the impeller I8. Figure 17 shows diagrammatically the circuit relationships of the impeller I1 and runner I8 with respect to one of thetoroidalchambers, such asthe chamber 92 traversed by the body offluid 95. Inorder to Apermitassembly o'f the middle `casing portion I5, the portion lllllthereof is formed in three pieces IllI, |92 and `|93 (Figures 1 and 15) which are litted into a cutaway `recess |94 surrounding the central portion |95 of the .casing portion I (Figure 1). Theportions |91, |02 and ID3 are provided with keyways Iiliwhich `mate with keys or splines |91 on the central portion |95. The portions IBI, |92 and |93 in assembly are incomplete, being separated by gaps which are lled by filler blocks |98 (Figure 15) which are `iitted in by the tongueand groove construction |99 andi I9. The parts IBI, |92 and Iii are held in assembly by the bolts `III (Figure 1). These inserts IGI, |92 andIS occur at thelocations where the buckets ofthe runner I8 adjoin the `central casing portion I5. Runner assembly The runner I8 (Figures V1, 8 and 9,) is a shallow bowl-shaped member `with a central bore 33 by which it ts tightly through the splines 4|) onto thesleeve 39. The runner I8 consists of a shell II`3 in which are formed bucket cavities II`4. These are inclinedat an angle to aplane perpendicular to the axis of rotation, Yas indicated by the `arrow .9 9 in .Figure 1, andby the crossh'atch portion in the central part of Figure '1. The bucket cavities I I4 are provided with partition walls II5 on opposite sides ofthe cavities AI I4. The partition walls II5haveknife-likeedges I I6 which serve to divide the uid flowingagainst them `from the nozzle apertures in the middle casing portion I5. The rim |I1unites the various walls I |5with one another, the walls I5 in effect forming `blades or vanes. Figure `8 shows Vin `dotted lines at the upper right-hand portion thereof oneof the nozzle openings 93e and one of vthe outlet openings 93f through which the liquid body `91 enters and leaves the impeller buckets VI I4. The rearward surface of the runner I8 is provided `with an annular recess -I I9 surrounding the `rearward part |20 of the hub 31 through which the bore 38 passes. The rearward or righthand casing portion I6 is dished as at I2-I (Figurel) to follow the varying conguration'of 'the `rearward surface |22 of the runner I8. The clearances between `the runner I8 and the adjacent portions of the casing l5 are shown as greatly exaggerated in Figure 1 for the purpose of clarity and-ease of understanding, but actually `they are keptat a minimum `so as to reduceleakage andbypassing to a minimum. Operation In considering the operation of the hydraulic torque converter of A.this invention,1it.should again :be recalled 4that the impeller I1 acts much in the manner of ashipts propeller ,in moving 'the three ring-shaped or toroidalbodies of .fluid 95, 96 and 91 which occupy the Ypassageways 9|, 92 and *93 respectively in the casing portions I4 and I5.' Again let it be remembered that these three `ringshapedbodies `of fluid 95, `and 491 (Figures 10 and 11), and of course Athe passageways 9Il, *92 and 93 which they traverse, `have `their median planes (the `plane containing the `maximum radii or diameters in each'c'ase) `inclinedat skew or compound angles tothe'axis'of rotation-of 'the shaft 23. These `three passageways enter yand traverse the respective casing portions I4 and I5 and engage the impeller I1 and runner LIS at locations IZdegrees apart so Vthat `they can `pass through these `elements'without'conflicting with one another. Let it alsobeassumed that thevarious passageways and cavities `withinthe casing portions yI4, I5 and I5 of `thefcasing 'I-Sare lledwith a'suitable 'motive liquid, such `as a conventional oil used'forhydraulic transmissions. The threeuid passageways 9|, A92 and *93are, of course,com pletely independentof one another and arenot interconnected except at the impeller chamber 53 and the runner chamber I2 I. Theseichambers are filled with oil whichseparates into three portions 95, Stand `91 traversing the three fluid passageways 91,92 and'93lrespectively. A- certain amount of oil is,'of course, carriedaround bythe vanes of the impeller Ilfor by the buckets ofthe runner I6, or leaks through the clearances `between'these rotors and thei-r `respective `casing walls, thus equalizingthe distribution of liquid in the three sets of passageways Finally, let it be assumed that the impeller I`1 is being rotated by the engine shaft fI-9 in 'a clockwise direction (Figures 1, 4 and'8) asindicated bythe arrows in the elliptical pathslshown therein. The directions of the arrows in Figures 3 and 10, of course, are counterclockwise since these views are taken looking from therearward side of the apparatustoward the front, that is, from the rear axleside looking toward the engine. Figure 17, of course, shows a fanciful'arrangement wherein Athe 'impeller l1 andrunner I8 are shownas laidout in straight lines. Assuming the'engine shaft I9 (Figure 1) to "be rotating in a clockwise direction, and assuming `the input clutch II to be shifted to the right y'to interconnect `the internal teeth 29 with the external teeth 32 and 33, the driving torque from the shaft I9 will `be transmitted through the splines 24, 29h, the input clutch II and the teeth 29, 33, 32 to the impeller I1 journalledupon theshaft 28, yrotating theimpeller I1 in a clockwise direction. Sincethe motion of *the fluid-bodies 95, 95 and 91 takes place in -planes whichare at skew angles to the plane of the paper of the various drawings, and since the drawing only shows two dimensions, it is, of course, impossible to `show in v4a drawing the entire pathway of the `iiuid, 'other than ina skew cross-section plane Awhich would again pre'- sent the `diniculty vof relation `this skew crosssection plane to the `normal planes `occupied. by the remainder of the drawings. Thus, of necessity, only a few portions of thethree passageways 9|, 192 and 93 traversed `by the annular or toroidal luidbodies 95, 96 and91 appear inany one of the drawing gures. The passageway 93, traversed by the fluid body 91, shows up most helpfully in this .respect since its .intersection with the impeller vanes or blades `and runner buckets `happens to coincide verynearly withthe vertical plane shown in Figure .1, hence the op- `the impeller I1. ademas Y 11 eration will rst be described as to this passageway 93 and fluid body 91. As the impeller I1 rotates, its angled or spirally directed blades 88 create a suction to the left of them in the lower left-hand corner of Figure 1 where the passageway 93 traverses the impeller casing portion I4 at the cavity 93a (Figures 1, 2 and 3). The fluid enters the bottom of the impeller cavity 83 from the cavity 93a it is engaged by the impeller blades 88 and is thrust obliquely backward into the plane of the paper (Figure 1) and passes into the middle casing portion I5 through the opening or port 92h (Figure 4) The fluid passes obliquely through that portion of the passageway 93 within the middle casing portion I5 and emerges through the opening 93j (top of Figure 6 and Figure l) into the runner chamber I2I. The uid entering through the opening 931, which acts as a nozzle, engages the runner buckets II4. As these are inclined to the periphery of the runner I8 (Figure 7) rotation is imparted to the latter. The liquid, having imparted its force to the runner I8, re-enters the middle casing portion I5 through the opening or port 93e and passes through the portion of the passageway or chamber 93 contained therein, thisrbeing located in front of the plane of the paper in Figure 1. The fluid leaves the middle casing portion I5 through the opening 93d and re-enters the middle casing portion through the opening 93o. The fluid passes through the portion of the passageway 93h contained within the impeller casing I4 and moves into the cavity 93a, to the left of the impeller I1, completing the circuit, Thus the fluid traverses an annular path extending behind the impeller at the left-hand side of Figure 1 and circles around at an oblique angle to the axis of the shaft 28 within the casing portions I4 and I5 into the buckets II4 of the runner I8. The two remaining passageways or chambers 9I and 92 containing the fluid bodies 95 and 95 are similarly described as to the operation of the machine except that they are displaced 129 degrees circumferentially away from the passage- Yway orchamber 93 containing the rotating annular fluid body 91. The fluid also rotates in a clockwise direction, looking from the left-hand .end of Figure 1 toward the right-hand end, which is the direction indicated by the arrows in Figures 4 and 8. Since the chambers or passageways 9| and 92 intersect the impeller cham- Iber 93 and runner chamber I2I out of the plane ofthe paper of the drawing in Figure 1, the course of the fluid is not as easily traced. In view of the detailed description of the path of the fluid in the passageway 93, however, a repetition of the detailed description is not believed to be necessary. l As regards the flow of the uid in the body 95 'within the passageway or chamber 9I, the fluid, .rotating in a clockwise direction as before, enters vthe'impeller chamber 83 from the cavity 9 la, due to the suction created therein by the rotation of The fluid passes downward in front of the plane of the paper in Figure 1 and after having rotation imparted to it by the impeller vanes 88, passes outward from the impeller casing I4 through the port 9If in the lower part `of Figure 1 into the passageway 8Ic in the middle casing portion, thence outward through the opening 9Ig (Figure 6) into the bucket cavity II4 of the bucket in the runner I8 which happens to be passing this opening at that instant. The fluid imparts its force to the buckets, causing the con- 12 Y Y Y tinued rotation of the runner I8, and re-enters the middle casing portion I5 through the port 9Ih (Figure 6) where it passes upwardly and emerges through the opening 9Id into the cavity portion SIb, whence it passes through the opening 9Ic into the cavity 9Ia in the impeller casing portion I4, re-entering the suction or intake side of the impeller I1 and completing the circuit. The course of the fluid body in the passageway 92 does not show well in Figure l, because most of the ports or openings lie outside the plane of the drawing, either in front of it or behind it. The uid enters the impeller cavity 83 from the cavity 92a (Figure 3) and has rotation imparted to it by the blades 88 of the impeller I1. The fluid leaves the impeller cavity through the opening 92h (Figure 4), passes through the middle casing portion I5 and emerges at the opening 92g (Figure 6), entering the buckets I I4 of the runner I8. After imparting a rotatory thrust to the runner I8 in this manner, the fluid leaves the bucket cavities II4 through the opening 92j and passes upward obliquely through the casing portion I5, emerging into the chamber portion 92h (Figure 4) at the forward or left-hand side of the middle casing portion I5. From the chamber portion 92h, the fluid passes through the adjacent openings 9203 and 92e into the cavity 92a in the impeller casing portion I4 (Figure 3). The fluid passes through the impeller casing cavity 92a behind the impeller I1 and re-enters the impeller chamber 83 on the suction side of the impeller I1, completing the circuit. The rotation of the runner I3 in this manner imparts rotation to the sleeve 39 journaled on the shaft 28 (Figure l). Depending upon the position of the output clutch I 2, the sleeve or hollow shaft 39 either drives the shaft directly or through the back gearing 19, 1I in a reverse direction so that the vehicle is propelled either forward or backward. Assuming that the shifting clutch member 59 is shifted to the left (Figure l) so that the internal teeth 5I engage the external teeth 48, 49, the drive is transmitted directly from the hollow runner shaft 39 through the upper clutch I2 to the propeller or output shaft 28, driving the vehicle forward. If, however, the clutch member 58 is shifted to the right in Figure 1 so that the sliding gear 51 meshes with the idler gear 12 (Figures 1 and 18), then the drive is transmitted from the hollow runner shaft 39 through the intermeshing gears 41 and 18 to the hub or hollow shaft 88 to the pinion 1I on the opposite end thereof.v From the pinion 1I, the drive is transmitted through the intermeshing idler gear 12 to the sliding gear 51, now meshing with the idler gear 12, and thence to the propeller shaft 28 through the spline 80, causing the vehicle to be propelled in a reverse or backing direction. As the vehicle comes up to speed from a standing stop, it reaches the point where the drive may be shifted to direct drive from the engine .shaft I9 to the output or propeller shaft 28. This is accomplished by shifting the input clutch II to the left from its neutral position of Figure 1, causing the internal teeth 29 to mesh with the teeth 38, 3| and directly drive the output shaft 28. To maintain the interior of the casing I3 lled with the working fluid such as oil, a conventional lling pump (not shown) is mounted in the forward casing extension 22 which serves as an oil reservoir. A conventional overflow or relief valve (not shown) to take olf the air within the `casing I3 is also mounted at the top of the casasians I3 ing near the flange 19 in order to remove air pockets.l This arrangement is well-known among hydraulic transmission engineers. What I claim is: l. A hydraulic torque converter comprising a casing having therein an impeller chamber, a runner chamber, an impeller having huid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said impeller chamber, a runner having duid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner chamber upon the same axis of rotation as said impeller, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller, a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a iiuid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a sectional uid conduit or" substantially toroidal shape extending around the axis of rotation oi one of said members and through said reactor and hydraulically interconnecting said chambers, separate sections-of said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor and in said runner respectively. 2. A hydraulic torque converter comprising a casing having therein an impeller chamber, a runner chamber, an impeller having huid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said impeller chamber, a runner having huid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner chamber upon the same axis of rotation as said impeller, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller, a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a fluid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a sectional uid conduit of substantially toroidal shape extending around the axis of rotation of one of said members and through said reactor and hydraulically interconnecting said chambers, separate sections of said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor and in said runner respectively, said conduit having its center line disposed approximately in a plane inclined obliduely relatively to the axis of rotation of said driving member. 3. A hydraulic torque converter comprising a casing having therein an impeller chamber, a runner chamber, an impeller having fluid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said impeller chamber, a runner having fluid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner chamber upon the same axis of rotation as said impeller, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller', a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a fluid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a sectional iiuid conduit of substantially toroidal shape extending around the axis of rotation of one of said members and through said reactor and hydraulically interconnecting said chambers, separate sections of said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor and in said runner respectively, said conduit having its center line disposed approximately in a plane inclined obliquely relatively to the axis of rotation of said driving member at a compound angle. 4. A hydraulic torque converter comprising a casing having therein an impeller chamber, a runner chamber, an impeller having fluid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said impeller chamber upon the same axis of rotation as said impeller, a runner having duid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner chamber, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller, a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a uid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a sectional iiuid conduit of substantially' toroidal shape extending around the axis of rotation of one of said members and through said reactor and` hydraulically interconnecting said chambers, separate sections of said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor and in said runner respectively, said runner elements comprising cup-shaped bucket cavities positioned on Said runner. 5. A hydraulic torque converter comprising a casing having therein an impeller chamber, a runner chamber, an impeller having fluid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said impeller chamber, a runner having fluid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner Vchamber upon the same axis of rotation as said impeller, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller, a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a fluid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a sectional fluid conduit `of substantially toroidal shape extending around the axis of rotation of one of said members and through. said reactor and hydraulically interconnecting said chambers, separate sections of said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor and in said runner respectively, said runner elements comprising cup-shaped bucket cavities positioned on said runner obliquely to the axis of rotation thereof. 6. A hydraulic torque converter comprising -a casing having therein an impeller chamber, a runner chamber, an impeller having fluid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said impeller chamber, a runner having fluid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner chamber upon the saine axis of rotation as said impeller, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller, a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a iiuid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a plurality of interentwined sectional fluid conduits of substantially toroidal shapes extending around the axis of rotation of one of said members and through said reactor Vand hydraulically interconnecting said chambers at spaced locations therein, separate sections of said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor, and in said runner respectively. '7. A hydraulic torque converter comprising a casing having therein an impeller chamber,` a runner chamber, an impeller having fluid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said impeller chamber, a runner having fluid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner chamber upon the same axis of rotation as said impeller, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller, a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a fluid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a plurality of interentwined sectional fluid conduits of substantially toroidal shapes extending around the axis of rotation of one of said members and through said reactor and hydraulically interconnecting said chambers at spaced locations therein, separate sections ci said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor, and in said runner respectively, said conduits being substantially independent of one another. 8. A hydraulic torque converter comprising a casing having therein an impeller chamber, a runner chamber, an impeller having fluid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said imbeller chamber, a runner having fluid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner chamber upon the same axis of rotation as said impeller, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller, a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a fluid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a plurality of interentwined sectional fluid conduits of substantially toroidal shapes extending around the axis of rotation of one of said members and through said reactor and hydraulically interconnecting said chambers at spaced locations therein, separate sections of said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor, and in said runner respectively, each of said conduits having its center line disposed approximately in a plane directed obliquely to the axis of rotation of said driving member. 9. A hydraulic torque converter comprising a casing having therein an impeller chamber, a runner chamber, an impeller having fluid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said impeller chamber upon the same axis of rotation as said impeller, a runner having fluid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner chamber, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller, a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a fluid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a plurality of interentwined sectional fluid conduits of substantially toroidal shapes extending around the axis of rotation of one of said members and through said reactor and hydraulically interconnecting said chambers at spaced locations therein, separate sections of said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor, and in said runner respectively, each of said conduits having its center line disposed approximately in a plane directed obliquely to the axis of rotation of said driving member, said conduits being substantially independent of one another. 10. A hydraulic torque converter comprising a casing having therein an impeller chamber, a runner chamber, an impeller having fluid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said impeller chamber, a runner having duid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner chamber upon the same axis of rotation as said impeller, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller, a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a uid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a sectional fluid conduit of substantially toroidal shape extending around the axis of rotation of one of said members and through said reactor and hydraulically interconnecting said chambers, separate sections of said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor and in said runner respectively, said conduit having its center line disposed approximately in a plane inclined obliquely relatively to the axis of rotation of said driving member and extending behind said impeller into the suction side thereof. 11. A hydraulic torque converter comprising a casing having therein an impeller chamber, a runner chamber, an impeller having fluid-moving elements thereon rotatably mounted in said impeller chamber, a runner having duid-moved elements thereon rotatably mounted in said runner chamber upon the same axis of rotation as said impeller, a driving member operatively connected to said impeller, a driven member operatively connected to said runner, a Vfluid reactor disposed between said impeller and said runner, and a plurality of interentwined sectional fluid conduits of substantially toroidal shapes extending around the axis of rotation of one of said members and through said reactor and hy draulically interconnecting said chambers at spaced locations therein, separate sections of said conduit being disposed in said impeller, in said reactor, and in said runner respectively, each of said conduits having its center line disposed approximately in a plane directed obliduely to the axis of rotation of said driving member and extending behind said impeller into the suction side thereof. WERNER H. FENGLER. REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent: UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,141,812 Michell et al. June l, 1915 1,888,881 Murphy Nov. 22, 1932 2,015,212 Beaumont Sept. 24, 1935 2,088,818 Skinner Aug. 3, 1937 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 305,996 Italy Feb. 22, 1933

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Patent Citations (4)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-1141812-AJune 01, 1915Anthony George Maldon Michell, Henry Clement NewtonHydraulic mechanism for transmission of power.
    US-1888881-ANovember 22, 1932Edwin L MurphyHydraulic transmission
    US-2015212-ASeptember 24, 1935Beaumont John MurrayDevice for the hydraulic transmission of power
    US-2088818-AAugust 03, 1937John F SkinnerRotary power apparatus

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Cited By (1)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-2782878-AFebruary 26, 1957Hancock WilliamSpeed responsive hydraulic brake